Theatre Technology

Standards, Resources, and more

Investigate Theatre Operations

1.1 Explain Theatre Hierarchy

1.1.1 Describe the duties of a producer

1.1.2 Explain the purpose and duties of the technical director

1.1.3 Describe the different technical crews needed for a production

1.1.4 Describe the role of the creative team in a production

1.1.5 Explain the function of the director in a production

1.1.6 Explain the duties of the stage manager in a production

1.1.7 Explain the duties of the different staff positions related to theatrical business

1.2 Describe Types of Stages

1.2.1 Compare and contrast types of stages that are used in theatrical and performance venues (e.g., proscenium, thrust, arena, nontraditional)

1.2.2 Examine historical influences on theatre venues

1.3 Understand Stage Geography

1.3.1 Identify the different acting areas and technical areas within the theater

1.3.2 Interpret plan drawings for the architectural elements in a theater (e.g., proscenium arch, gridiron, vestibules, catwalks and beams, fly system)

Demonstrate Theatre Safety

2.1 Explain General Safety, Regulations and Procedures

2.1.1 Evaluate safety hazards in the theater

2.1.2 Research the local and state regulations for fire safety

2.1.3 Demonstrate the proper care of the shop and stage areas (e.g., fly system, lighting and sound equipment, electrical distribution and safety, etc.)

2.1.4 Demonstrate safe and efficient use and care of all personal protection equipment (e.g., safety glasses and shields, ear protection, welding gloves and apron, etc.)

2.1.5 Locate and identify fire protection, escape routes, and alarm equipment

2.1.6 Identify the locations and proper uses of the rinse sink, eye wash station, and first aid kit

2.1.7 Describe the procedures for reporting and treating an accident in the theater

2.2 Utilize Tools and Equipment Safety

2.2.1 Identify the tools and equipment used in the theater

2.2.2 Demonstrate proper use of all tools and backstage equipment

2.3 Practice Rigging Safety

2.3.1 Demonstrate safe usage and storage of ladders and scaffolding

2.3.2 Demonstrate safe and appropriate use of the theater’s fly system

2.3.3 Demonstrate safe usage and storage of personnel lifts

2.3.4 Demonstrate safe and correct knot and wire rope installation used in theater rigging

2.3.5 Demonstrate proper arbor loading and counterweighting

2.3.6 Explain the proper usage of harness and working at height

2.3.7 Inspect all aspects and ratings of a rigging system (i.e., hardware, purchase lines, wire rope, batten, blocks and grid)

2.4 Practice Lighting and Electrical Safety

2.4.1 Demonstrate proper care and storage of cable including cleaning and coiling, plug repair and replacement, and storage

2.4.2 Identify faulty or defective lighting and electrical equipment

2.4.3 Demonstrate proper safe practices when hanging and circuiting lighting instruments and equipment

2.5 Practice Paint, Dye and Chemical Safety

2.5.1 Classify items that are required to be placed in the yellow hazardous chemicals cabinet

2.5.2 Identify different hazards of paints, thinners, cleaners, solvents and other basic chemicals and compounds that are used in the theater and shops

2.5.3 Demonstrate appropriate protective gear and clothing for safe use of paints, dyes and chemicals

2.5.4 Demonstrate appropriate handling, cleanup and storage of all paints, dye, chemicals and equipment

2.5.5 Explain the importance of proper ventilation of shops and stage

2.5.6 Demonstrate proper use of masking and containment of paints and solvents

2.5.7 Locate and explain the contents of Safety Data Sheets (SDS)

2.5.8 Research local and state regulations related to disposal of hazardous material

Demonstrate Set Construction

3.1 Apply Scenic Materials and Hardware

3.1.1 Compare and contrast different materials and their uses

3.1.2 Verify the actual measurements of lumber (i.e., 1”x3”, 1”x4”, & 2”x4”)

3.1.3 Describe the various uses and sizes of different types of materials and hardware

3.1.4 Explain terminology related to metallic materials (i.e., pipe, flat bar, truss)

3.1.5 Demonstrate the application of different types of hardware and materials

3.2 Construct Scenic Elements

3.2.1 Practice proper procedures for measuring materials

3.2.2 Demonstrate proficiency in use of non-powered tools used for the stage

3.2.3 Demonstrate proper paint application techniques

3.2.4 Demonstrate proficiency in use of powered tools used for the stage

3.2.5  Explain the importance and requirement of fire proofing scenic elements

3.2.6  Select appropriate materials for a scenic element

3.2.7  Demonstrate correct construction techniques


3.3 Build Basic Units of Scenery

3.3.1 Explain the purpose of a wagon in a theatrical production

3.3.2 Describe how to build a theatrical wagon

3.3.3 Demonstrate how to build and install window and door units

3.3.4 Describe the different parts of a stair unit (i.e., stringer, kickboard, and tread)

3.3.5 Demonstrate how to build a stair unit for the stage

3.3.6 Identify the term platform as it relates to the stage

3.3.7 Demonstrate how to build a 4’ x 8’ platform for the stage

3.3.8 Analyze the different types of flats used in set construction

3.3.9 Describe the different parts of a theatrical flat

3.3.10 Demonstrate how to build a standard flat used in set construction

3.4 Assemble Flats

3.4.1 Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of hard and soft coverings

3.4.2 Demonstrate how to hard and soft cover a flat

3.4.3 Explain how to join two flats together at various angles

3.4.4 Describe the term “Dutchman” as it relates to set construction

3.4.5 Demonstrate sizing and repair of a muslin/cotton flat

3.5 Understand Production Load In/Out

3.5.1 Define the terms strike, load out, and load in as they relate to the theater

3.5.2 Describe the needs of a specific load out

3.5.3 Explain the process required for a specific load out

Understand Lighting Design

4.1 Explain Lighting Theory

4.1.1 Describe the basic function of stage lighting (i.e., visibility, directional, practical, background, effect)

4.1.2 Discuss what it means to properly light the stage

4.1.3 Research different theories of stage lighting (e.g., McCandless)

4.2 Compare and Contrast Instruments and Equipment

4.2.1 Compare and contrast features and uses of different types of lighting instruments

4.2.2 Describe accessories used in stage lighting equipment

4.3 Demonstrate Hanging and Focusing Lighting Systems

4.3.1 Describe and demonstrate the process of safely installing lighting systems

4.3.2 Explain the purpose of lamp optimization within a fixture’s reflector

4.3.3 Describe and demonstrate the process of focusing various lighting instruments

4.3.4 Demonstrate how to install color medium (i.e., gel and install a gobo in a lighting instrument)

4.4 Program a Lighting System

4.4.1 Determine when lighting cues are needed according to the script/director

4.4.2 Demonstrate correct patching of a stage lighting system

4.4.3 Determine the timing of the lighting cues according to the script/director

4.4.4 Demonstrate the keystrokes needed to properly create and save a stage lighting look


4.5 Create a light plot

4.5.1 Determine lighting needs and placement based on a given light plot

4.5.2 Explain how to use the instrument key on a given light plot

4.6 Apply the Design Process to Lighting

4.6.1  Discuss the importance of given circumstances in a play as it informs light design

4.6.2  Explain the effect of color used in lighting

4.6.3  Create a light plot and instrument schedule

4.6.4 Explain the psychological/emotional impact of light direction on the subject onstage

4.6.5 Explain the difference between “motivated” and “motivating” light sources

4.6.6 Compare and contrast lighting for various set designs and performance venues

Audio Engineering

5.1 Explain the Components of a Sound System

5.1.1 Compare and contrast a live source versus a playback source

5.1.2 Identify the components of a sound system

5.1.3 Demonstrate how to set up a basic sound system

5.1.4 Describe the signal path as it travels through the sound system

5.1.5 Demonstrate the sequence to power up and power down the sound system

5.1.6 Identify the different parts of speaker, microphone and patching cables

5.1.7 Illustrate and label the equipment that is needed in a basic sound system

5.1.8 Describe mix and signal processing as it relates to audio engineering


5.2 Compare and Contrast Microphones

5.2.1 Compare and contrast different types of microphones and their set up

5.2.2 Define phantom power and describe its use in certain microphones

5.2.3 Demonstrate the setup of wired and wireless microphones

5.2.4 Practice proper handling, general maintenance, and proper care of all types of microphones and cables

5.2.5 Communicate to performers the proper handling of microphones


5.3 Apply Various Signal Levels

5.3.1  Explain the difference between line level and mic level inputs

5.3.2  Demonstrate the use of the gain and EQ control in correcting microphone levels

5.3.3  Describe the use and effect of signal processing, including the use of a compressor

5.3.4 Demonstrate proper troubleshooting techniques in audio engineering


5.4 Demonstrate Recording and Playback

5.4.1 Demonstrate the skills and techniques that are needed to play back sound through various devices

5.4.2 Research various copyright rules and regulations as related to audio

5.4.3 Demonstrate the skills and techniques needed to record and store sound to various devices

Stage Management

6.1 Create a Prompt Book

6.1.1 Research the elements of a stage manager’s prompt book.

6.1.2 Build a stage manager’s prompt book


6.2 Demonstrate Effective Communication

6.2.1 Discuss the importance of good communication within the production

6.2.2 Demonstrate the types and styles of communication that a stage manager can use

6.2.3 Demonstrate and describe proper set up and usage of an intercom system

6.2.4 Explain the communication responsibilities of the stage manager at the production meetings


6.3 Describe Performance Duties and Processes

6.3.1 Describe the role and duties of stage managers

6.3.2 Research the contents of a stage manager’s kit

6.3.3 Practice taping the floor using a ground plan

6.3.4 Describe the types and purposes of technical rehearsals

6.3.5 Demonstrate the process of taking down blocking notation in a rehearsal

6.3.6 Demonstrate the cue calling process during a production

6.3.7 Discuss troubleshooting strategies during a production

6.3.8 Demonstrate the preset process that must occur during a production

Scenic Design

7.1 Understand Concepts of Scenic Design

7.1.1 Identify the purpose and history of scenic design

7.1.2  Research the elements of scenic design

7.1.3  Utilize industry standard terms related to scenic design

7.1.4 Compare and contrast the types of scenic design (e.g., box set, unit set)

7.1.5 Demonstrate the importance of sightlines in a set design and how it affects the audience


7.2 Analyze Scenic Designs

7.2.1 Explain the use of levels and planes in a scenic design

7.2.2 Discuss the use of flats, wagons, platforms, and ramps in scenic design

7.2.3 Analyze the different styles of scenic design (e.g., representational, presentational sets, realism, selective realism)

7.2.4  Analyze a given script for scenic design

7.2.5  Analyze the purposes of designing for directorial composition

7.2.6  Examine drops and drapery in scenic design

7.2.7  Identify the utilization of a unified color palette in all theatrical designs


7.3 Utilize Scale Drawings and Ground Plans

7.3.1 Identify the term rendering as it relates to scenic design

7.3.2 Identify the term ground plan as it relates to scenic design

7.3.3 Demonstrate the use of scale in a drawing using ¼”=1’ and ½”=1’

7.3.4 Analyze the purpose of the centerline and plasterline in a ground plan for the stage

7.3.5 Define the elements of a scenic plan

7.3.6 Demonstrate how to draw elements of a scenic plan (i.e., walls, doors, archways, windows, stairs, and platforms)

7.3.7 Describe the use of a section view

7.3.8 Research new advances in technology that can be applied to scenic design


7.4 Create Elevations and Models

7.4.1 Explain the purpose of elevations in a scenic design

7.4.2 Demonstrate the steps in building a scale model for a scenic design for the stage

7.4.3 Create a scale model using a ground plan and elevations in either ¼” or ½” scale

Understanding Costuming

8.1 Explain the Functions of Costuming

8.1.1 Research time period, location, and historical references

8.1.2 Explain the role of costuming in a production

8.1.3 Describe costuming for a particular personality, age, gender, role or status

8.1.4 Explain how costuming reflects the development of a character


8.2 Examine Elements and Principles of Costume Design

8.2.1  Compare and contrast the elements of design (i.e., line, shape, color, and texture)

8.2.2 Analyze the principles of design (i.e., movement, balance, contrast)

8.2.3  Explain the functionality of a costume within a given production

8.2.4 Examine the unity of costumes within a production

8.2.5  Analyze the script for the author’s theme and mood

8.2.6  Evaluate how the director’s concept and style affects the design


8.3 Demonstrate Wardrobe Maintenance

8.3.1 Describe the importance of wardrobe maintenance

8.3.2 Facilitate the cleaning, upkeep, and storage of costumes

8.3.3 Demonstrate proper costume repair and alterations

8.3.4 Create and demonstrate a quick change procedure

House Management and Related Business Functions

9.1 Explain House Staff Responsibilities

9.1.1 Identify the term house manager as it pertains to the theater

9.1.2 Discuss concession and promotional sales during a production

9.1.3 Explain the need of a house manager to communicate with other members of the production

9.1.4 Explain the duties of ushers

9.1.5 Describe intermission procedures for the house staff of a theater

9.1.6 Create a contact list in case of emergencies in the theater

9.1.7 Describe and demonstrate closing procedures for the house staff in a theater

9.1.8 Create evacuation, security and safety procedures for the theater


9.2 Develop a Promotion Plan

9.2.1 Explain the different methods of advertising for a theatrical performance (e.g., posters, news media, social media)

9.2.2 Describe the role of social media in promoting a production

9.2.3 Explain how a theatrical box office operates

9.2.4 Analyze the different parts of a standard theatrical program

9.2.5 Identify timeline in creating a promotion plan for a theater’s season

9.2.6  Research the process of licensing shows, including renting materials, and paying royalties

9.2.7  Analyze the purpose of a promotion plan for the theater

9.2.8  Describe methods to gain community/financial support and sponsors

9.2.9  Analyze different ticket distribution methods

9.2.10 Create a promotion plan

9.2.11 Create a mock program for a given theatrical production

9.3 Prepare a Budget

9.3.1  Analyze the differences between an amateur and professional theatre company as it pertains to licensing rights

9.3.2  Explain appropriate box office accounting and reporting

9.3.3  Analyze fixed vs. variable costs for the theatre budget

9.3.4  Create a budget for a production

Careers in Theatre

10.1 Describe Employment Opportunities

10.1.1  Research careers in traditional and nontraditional theatre venues

10.1.2  Identify the terms regional, touring, and repertory as it relates to the entertainment industry

10.1.3 Analyze the difference between professional theatre and educational theatre

10.1.4 Discuss the pros and cons of freelance work

10.2 Research Theatre Companies

10.2.1 Identify the term shareholders as it relates to a theatrical producer

10.2.2 Evaluate different outlets for investing in plays

10.2.3 Compare and contrast commercial and non-profit/community theatres

10.2.4 Research the unique aspects of working in theatre in New York City

10.3 Examine Theatrical Unions

10.3.1 Examine different crafts within theatrical unions

10.3.2 Research requirements and benefits of different theatrical unions

10.3.3 Examine state employment laws as they relate to union membership and employment

10.3.4 Research local houses/venues to determine union status